Monday, May 13

What is menstrual cycle ?

Menstruation - having periods - is part of the female reproductive cycle that starts when girls become sexually mature at the time of puberty.

During a menstrual period, a woman bleeds from her uterus (womb) via the vagina. This lasts anything from three to seven days. Each period commences approximately every 28 days if the woman does not become pregnant during a given cycle.

Why do women menstruate?

A woman's internal sex organs consist of two ovaries, the Fallopian tubes, the uterus (womb) and the vagina. The ovaries contain the eggs with which the woman is born and, during each period, a single egg will usually ripen and mature due to the action of hormones circulating in the bloodstream.

When the egg is mature it bursts from the ovary and drifts through the Fallopian tube down into the uterus. The lining of the uterus - the endometrium - has been thickened by the action of hormones and made ready to receive the fertilised egg.

After every period, new membranes are formed in the uterus in preparation to receive a fertilized ovum that can develop into a foetus.
If the ovum that’s produced is not fertilized, the uterus will begin bleeding, about two weeks after ovulation.

Menstrual discharge is composed of the endometrium itself, together with a little fresh blood caused by the breaking of very fine blood vessels within the endometrium as it detaches itself from the inside of the uterus.

During the course of your period, your menstruation consists of varying amounts of blood, tissue and fluids from membranes in the uterus. At the beginning of your period, it will contain more blood than at the end. This is why your menstruation will change in colour.
The amount of blood lost due to the normal monthly period is usually less than 80ml.

When does menstruation begin?

These days, girls begin to menstruate when they are about 10 to 14 years-old. The average age is approximately 12. Women will continue to menstruate until the age of 45 to 55, when menopause begins. A woman will have approximately 500 periods in her lifetime.

Can you feel ovulation?

  Ovulation usually takes place roughly 14 days after the first day of the start of a period; however, the exact timing can vary greatly from woman to woman. Some women know when they are ovulating because they can feel a slight pain in their lower abdomen. Other women may bleed slightly in the middle of their cycle.

Vaginal discharge also changes at ovulation. It increases in amount and becomes more watery due to hormonal changes. This is one of the ways that women who wish to practice natural family planning  using the mucus test can find out whether it is safe to have sex or not.

Women who do not experience such symptoms during ovulation can find out when they are ovulating by taking their temperature. This will rise by 0.5 degrees Celsius when ovulation occurs. To measure temperature effectively, it must be taken at the same time every morning before getting out of bed.

Temperature readings taken from different parts of the body such as the mouth, under the arm, in the ear or in the rectum will all give a slightly different measurement.   When checking for temperature, rises can occur for a variety of reasons and, therefore, should not be used as the only method of detecting ovulation.

What influences menstruation?

The menstruation is a complex process involving hormones and the sexual organs. First and foremost, hormones have a major influence on menstruation. If they are not balanced, a woman's cycle will be affected. If a woman's period becomes too irregular, they should see a doctor for advice. Other influences on hormones and menstruation include a woman's weight, stress levels and her general fitness and health.

Weight also influences hormonal balance and menstruation. If a woman is underweight, her hormones will stop working properly and her periods might stop altogether.  Stress also affects the hormones. Many women find that if they are worried about something, it can influence menstruation. In some cases, a woman's period might actually stop if she is very worried about whether she is pregnant.

Regular exercise and keeping fit and healthy can help regulate the menstrual cycle.

Symptoms of painful periods

The main symptom of period pain is painful muscle cramps in your lower abdomen . Sometimes the pain comes in intense spasms, while at other times the pain may  more constant.
Period pain can sometimes spread to your lower back and your thighs. You may also notice that the pain varies with each period. Some periods may cause you little or no discomfort, while others may be far more painful.
other symptoms
•nausea (feeling sick)
•feeling faint

  Relieve  symptoms

There are several things that will help relieve discomfort:
while menstruating, refrain from drinking caffeinated drinks such as coffee, tea, cola or cocoa.
avoid stress. Relaxation and massage can work wonders.
exercise and staying fit can help prevent painful periods.
keep your abdomen warm.
finally, use pain-relieving medicines if necessary.
Remember that it is always best to consult your doctor about your specific concerns.

Causes painful periods

The pain can be caused by the cervix dilating when the blood and the tissue are passed out of the womb.
the pain can be due to earlier infections or inflammations of the uterus, or benign tumours in the uterus.
in some cases, painful periods are hereditary. If a woman has painful periods, her daughters may later be affected in the same way.


Periods can stop for a number of reasons: 
  • Pregnancy.
  • Premature menopause (this can affect women in their early twenties).
  • Weight loss.
  • Weight gain.
  • Some forms of medication including the contraceptive pill or injections.
  • Drug abuse.
  • Stress.
  • Hormonal imbalances such as an underactive thyroid gland or the overproduction of a hormone called prolactin.
  • Polycystic ovaries  .

  • Irregular, infrequent periods (oligomenorrhoea) 

    This is irregular or infrequent periods. Menstruation can occur anywhere between every six weeks and six months. Many of the causes are the same as those for amenorrhoea.

    A common cause is a condition called polycystic ovary syndrome . This is a hormonal disorder that affects the ovaries of up to ten per cent of women  . The ovaries have an abnormally large number of follicles - little swellings that develop each month to release an egg.
    This condition results in irregular ovulation and thus periods are usually infrequent. The diagnosis of polycystic ovaries is made on the basis of one or more blood tests to measure hormones; a pelvic ultrasound scan of the ovaries is often taken as an additional test.
    Treatment is only necessary if there is concern about the irregularity of periods or if a woman is having difficulty becoming pregnant.
    The hormonal changes are complex, including high testosterone levels with associated insulin resistance and abnormal lipid levels. Generally the follicles remain immature meaning that eggs are often not released and the woman rarely ovulates and so is less fertile. In addition to irregular periods, women with PCOS may also have excess body hair and be overweight.

Monday, May 6

Binge Eating Disorder. Symptoms ,Causes and Cures

Binge eating disorder is characterized by compulsive overeating in which people consume huge amounts of food while feeling out of control and powerless to stop. The symptoms of binge eating disorder usually begin in late adolescence or early adulthood. A binge eating episode typically lasts around two hours, but some people binge on and off all day long. Binge eaters often eat even when they’re not hungry and continue eating long after they’re full.


People with binge eating disorder struggle with feelings of guilt, disgust, and depression. They worry about what the compulsive eating will do to their bodies and beat themselves up for their lack of self-control.

Binge eating often leads to weight gain and obesity.  It becomes a vicious cycle: eating to feel better, feeling even worse, and then turning back to food for relief.


Frequent episodes of eating what others would consider an abnormally large amount of food

Frequent feelings of being unable to control what or how much is being eaten

Eating much more rapidly than usual

Eating until uncomfortably full

Eating large amounts of food, even when not physically hungry

Eating alone out of embarrassment at the quantity of food being eaten

Feelings of disgust, depression, or guilt after overeating

Fluctuations in weight

Feelings of low self-esteem

Loss of sexual desire

Frequent dieting

People with binge eating disorder are embarrassed and ashamed of their eating habits, so they often try to hide their symptoms and eat in secret. Many binge eaters are overweight or obese, but some are of normal weight.

Over time, compulsive overeating usually leads to obesity. Obesity, in turn, causes numerous medical complications, including:

*Heart disease
*Certain types of cancer
*Joint and muscle pain
*Gastrointestinal problems
*Sleep apnea
*Type 2 diabetes
*Gallbladder disease
*High cholesterol
*High blood pressure


Exact cause of binge eating disorder is still unknown. Like other eating disorders, binge eating disorder seems to result from a combination of psychological, biological, and environmental factors.

Nearly half of all people with binge eating disorder have a history of depression, although the exact nature of the link is unclear. Many people report that anger, sadness, boredom, anxiety, or other negative emotions can trigger an episode of binge eating.

Eating disorders, including binge eating disorder, tend to run in families, suggesting that a susceptibility to eating disorders might be inherited.  Some parents unwittingly set the stage for binge eating by using food to comfort, dismiss, or reward their children. Children who are exposed to frequent critical comments about their bodies and weight are also vulnerable, as are those who have been sexually abused in childhood.

Biological abnormalities can contribute to binge eating. For example, the hypothalamus (the part of the brain that controls appetite) may not be sending correct messages about hunger and fullness.


  Nutrition counseling: 

People with binge eating disorder have often had long periods of dieting.  Whether or not they want to lose weight, should get help from a health professional specialist such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, or clinical social worker for their underlying psychological issues and normalize eating patterns.

Eating disorders require a comprehensive treatment plan that is adjusted to meet the needs of each patient.  In order to stop the unhealthy pattern of binge eating, it’s important to start eating for health and nutrition. Healthy eating involves making balanced meal plans, choosing healthy foods when eating out, and making sure you’re getting the right vitamins and minerals in your diet. The goals for treatment of binge-eating disorder are to reduce eating binges, to improve your emotional well-being and, when necessary, to lose weight.

Cognitive behavioral therapy .

Cognitive-behavioral therapy educates individuals how to keep track of and change their unhealthy eating habits. The individual needs to eat regular meals and snacks to normalize their eating patterns.  It also teaches them individuals how to change their thoughts so they can effectively deal with their emotions.

  Interpersonal psychotherapy.

Interpersonal psychotherapy also can help these individual to build effective relationships and make necessary changes in problem areas.

Drug therapy

Drug therapy, such as antidepressants, may also be helpful to decrease depression or anxiety to help give the individuals more of a chance to utilize their newfound coping skills. Certain antidepressant medications called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors might be used to help control anxiety and depression associated with an eating disorder.  Other types of medicines have begun to receive research attention to possibly help reduce binging behavior, such as the anticonvulsants Topamax or Zonegran.

Topamax – The seizure drug topiramate, or Topamax, may decrease binge eating and increase weight loss. However, Topamax can cause serious side effects, including fatigue, dizziness, and burning or tingling sensations.

Self-prescribing any medication, especially antidepressant medication, is extremely dangerous. It can even be fatal. Always consult a primary care doctor or mental health professional before taking any medication.


Psychotherapy, whether in individual or group sessions, can help teach you how to exchange unhealthy habits for healthy ones and reduce bingeing episodes.

Support for binge eating disorder

If you think you might have binge eating disorder, it's important to know that you are not alone.  It is important that family members understand the eating disorder and recognize its signs and symptoms. People with eating disorders might benefit from group therapy, where they can find support, and openly discuss their feelings and concerns with others who share common experiences and problems.

Most people who have the disorder have tried but failed to control it on their own. You may want to get professional help. Talk to your health care provider about the type of help that may be best.

Monday, April 29

Cold Sore Causes,Symptoms and Medical Treatment

Cold Sore Causes

 Herpes simplex is caused by a contagious oral virus. The virus is spread from person to person by kissing or other close contact with sores or even from contact with apparently normal skin that is shedding the virus. Infected saliva is also a means of spreading the virus. The most contagious period is when a person has active blister-like sores. Once the blisters have dried and crusted over (within a few days), the risk of contagion is significantly lessened.
However, a person infected with HSV can pass it on to another person even when a cold sore is not present.
This is because the virus is sometimes shed in saliva even when sores are not present.
It is almost impossible to catch herpes   from contaminated surfaces, towels.

Cold Sore Symptoms and Signs

Certain symptoms occur before the actual sores appear. The prodrome to herpes infections typically involves a burning or tingling sensation that precedes the appearance of blisters by a few hours or a day or two

Medical Treatment

•There are several medications to reduce the duration or symptoms of cold sores. Some are available without a prescription , and others require a prescription from a doctor.
Some are  they are creams or ointments rubbed directly on the sore, and others are taken in pill form.

•Over-the-counter  topical medications: Most topical OTC products provide symptomatic relief only. This means that they make people feel better but they do not decrease healing time. Using topical anesthetics that contain benzocaine (5%-20%), lidocaine (0.5%-4%), tetracaine (2%) or dibucaine (0.25%-1%) will help relieve burning, itching, and pain. Examples are Lipactin gel and Zilactin. 
Skin protectants, such as allantoin, petrolatum, and dimethicone-containing products, help keep the lesion moist and prevent cracking of the lesion.

For additional pain relief, using ibuprofen (Advil) or acetaminophen (Tylenol) may be beneficial.  

Docosanol 10% cream (Abreva) is the only over-the-counter product has been shown to decrease healing time when applied at the first sign of recurrence  . Docosanol is applied five times per day until the lesion is healed.   

 •  The medications used in the treatment of herpes simplex virus in adults are acyclovir (Zovirax), valacyclovir (Valtrex), and Famciclovir (Famvir). These oral medications have been shown to decrease the duration of the outbreak, especially when started during the "prodrome" symptom onset before the actual condition becomes fully evident.

The medications are generally well tolerated with few side effects . For simple, recurrent cold sores in adults, valacyclovir is given as 2 grams orally every 12 hours for one day, and famciclovir is given as 1,500 milligrams orally for one dose. Acyclovir is given as 400 mg orally five times per day for five days. 

Monday, April 22

Dandruff Cure and Home Remedies

The exact cause of dandruff, is unknown. However, most experts do agree that it is not caused by poor hygiene.
Dandruff is a condition of the scalp that causes flakes of skin to appear. Dandruff is a common condition, which is marked by itching. In some cases it can be embarrassing and not easy to treat.
People with dry skin tend to get dandruff more often. Winter cold air, combined with overheated rooms is a common cause of itchy, flaking skin. People with dandruff caused by dry skin tend to have small flakes of dandruff; the flakes are not oily.

Some people think their dandruff is caused by their scalp being too dry. They try to deal with this by not washing their hair with shampoo, or wash it less often, believing that washing worsens the problem. This is a myth (not true). Dandruff differs from a dry scalp in that it usually gets better when you shampoo more frequently

People who are sensitive to yeast have a slightly higher risk of having dandruff, so it is logical to assume that yeast may play a part.
Yeast-sensitive people who get dandruff find that it gets better during the warmer months and worse during the winter.

People who do not comb/brush their hair regularly have a slightly higher risk of having dandruff - this is because they are not aiding the shedding of skin that combing/brushing provides.

Irritated, oily skin (seborrheic dermatitis). This condition, one of the most frequent causes of dandruff, is marked by red, greasy skin covered with flaky white or yellow scales. Seborrheic dermatitis may affect not only your scalp, but also other areas rich in oil glands, such as your eyebrows, the sides of your nose and the backs of your ears, your breastbone, your groin area, and sometimes your armpits

Psoriasis. This skin disorder causes an accumulation of dead skin cells that form thick, silvery scales. Psoriasis commonly occurs on your knees, elbows and trunk, but it can also affect your scalp.

Eczema. If you have eczema anywhere on your body, it could also be on your scalp, possibly leading to the development of dandruff.

Certain illnesses. For reasons that aren't clear, adults with neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, are more likely to develop seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff.

Oily hair and scalp. Malassezia feeds on oils in your scalp. For that reason, having excessively oily skin and hair makes you more prone to dandruff.

Poor diet. If your diet lacks foods high in zinc, B vitamins or certain types of fats, you may be more likely to have dandruff.


In general, daily cleansing with a gentle shampoo to reduce oiliness and skin cell buildup can often help mild dandruff.

But dandruff shampoos aren't all alike, and you may need to experiment until you find one that works for you. If you develop itching, stinging, redness or burning from any of these products, discontinue use.

Healing shampoo

If you've shampooed faithfully for several weeks and there's still a dusting of dandruff on your shoulders, talk to your doctor or dermatologist. You may need a prescription-strength shampoo or treatment with a steroid lotion.

Zinc pyrithione shampoos: These contain the antibacterial and antifungal agent zinc pyrithione, which can reduce the fungus on your scalp that can cause dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis.

Tea tree oil, which comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, has been used for centuries as an antiseptic, antibiotic and antifungal agent. It's now included in a number of shampoos found in natural foods stores

Tar-based shampoos . Coal tar, a byproduct of the coal manufacturing process, helps conditions such as dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis by slowing how quickly skin cells on your scalp die and flake off.Using a conditioner after shampooing can help relieve dryness.

Shampoos containing salicylic acid:  These "scalp scrubs" help eliminate scale, but they may leave your scalp dry, leading to more flaking.  

Selenium sulfide shampoos (  Selsun Blue). These shampoos slow your skin cells from dying and may also reduce malassezia. Because they can discolor blond, gray or chemically colored hair, be sure to use them only as directed, and rinse well after shampooing.

Ketoconazole shampoos (  Nizoral). Ketoconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent that may work when other shampoos fail.


Home Remedies
•Salt: The abrasiveness of ordinary table salt works great for scrubbing out dandruff before you shampoo. Grab a saltshaker and shake some salt onto your dry scalp. Then work it through your hair, giving your scalp a massage. You’ll find you’ve worked out the dry, flaky skin and are ready for a shampoo.

• Lemon: Juice out half a lemon which is approximately 2-2 and a half spoons and dilute it with the water of your last rinse. This not only leaves a refreshing smell in your hair, but also helps you get rid off the stickiness. This works great for the oily heads.

• Mouthwash: To treat a bad case of dandruff, wash your hair with your regular shampoo; then rinse with an alcohol-based mouthwash. You can follow with your regular conditioner.

• Beets: The roots and the tops of beet must be boiled in water and this solution must be massage into the hair scalp every night.  Use a white beet particularly for this.

• Cider vinegar: Dilute water and cider vinegar in equivalent quantities and apply on the hair with cotton whilst shampooing. Add some cider vinegar in your last rinse water too.

• Olive oil: Massage with olive oil to prevent dried and flaked scalp. But this has to be done post shower.

•  Baking Soda: To get dandruff under control, wet your hair and then rub a handful of baking soda vigorously into your scalp. Rinse thoroughly and dry. Do this every time you normally wash your hair, but only use baking soda, no shampoo. Your hair may get dried out at first. But after a few weeks your scalp will start producing natural oils, leaving your hair softer and free of flakes.

•  Aspirin, Is your dandruff problem getting you down? Keep it in check by crushing two aspirins to a fine powder and adding it to the normal amount of shampoo you use each time you wash your hair. Leave the mixture on your hair for 1-2 minutes, then rinse well and wash again with plain shampoo.


Home recipe

1-INGREDIENTS: Coconut oil 
hot water 

INSTRUCTIONS: Apply to scalp and scrub dead skin with fingers or 
brush then hold head under hot water in shower for at least 
15 minutes You should see immediate results that last 6 month to a

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2-  INGREDIENTS: Johnson & Johnson Baby Oil (or any other baby oil)

INSTRUCTIONS: Best to apply over the whole head in the evening and leave until the morning.You will not have to repeat to many times, but do daily until all dandruff is gone.

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3- INGREDIENTS: 1 tblspn of Olive oil 
1 tspn of limejuice
1 Terry towel

INSTRUCTIONS: Mix 1 tblspn of Olive oil with 1 tspn of limejuice. Apply well on the 
scalp and cover the head by tying an terry towel .Keep it on overnight and shampoo the next morning

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4- INGREDIENTS: Aloe vera, Aloe vera shampoo

INSTRUCTIONS:  Put the aloe vera gel where there is lots of 
dandruff.Leave it for ten minutes. Then use a shampoo called Palmolive naturals Aloe vera shampoo and aplly the shampoo on your hair. Rinse your hair with water.  

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INSTRUCTIONS:  Add the baking soda to the shampoo. Mix Well. Leave it on till it starts burning. If it don't start to burn its not working.shampoo and aplly the shampoo on your hair. Rinse your hair with water.  

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Wednesday, April 17


Fiori romantici o Denim degradè.
Quale stile preferite per questa primavera?

THEVOGUECAKE price 35,00 €

THEVOGUECAKE price 37,00 €